Users need to manage more authentication factors today:

  • Passwords -- likely will never go away.
  • Smart cards -- unlocked with a PIN.
  • Token PINs -- unlocked with a PIN or password.
  • Hard disk encryption -- must type a password before the OS will boot.
  • PKI certificates -- unlocked by a password or PIN.
  • Voice or other biometrics -- need to be enrolled.
  • Security questions -- first enrolled and periodically refreshed.
  • Cell phone number/provider -- can act as another authentication factor.